• L Salami
  • A.A Susu
  • W.A Gin
  • U Musa
Keywords: Analysis of variance, contamination, evaluation, groundwater and status.


The integrity of groundwater is very important to determine its suitability for drinking. The status
groundwater contamination of Igando area of Lagos State was evaluated. Groundwater samples were
taken from 16 different locations in Igando using treated 1 litre plastic bottles. The samples were
labeled GW 1 to GW 16 and they were analysed for the following parameters: calcium (Ca2+),
magnesium (Mg2+), manganese, (Mn+) potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), iron (Fe2+), boron (B3+), total
hardness (TH), total dissolved solid (TDS) and chloride (Cl-) using the standard methods for the
examination of water and wastewater as prescribed by the American Public Health Association.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out on the data obtained from groundwater analysis with
the aid of an in-built Microsoft excel version 2007. The results of the analysed parameters in
groundwater samples investigated from locations 1 – 3, 7 and 9 were below the values stipulated in
the guidelines for drinking water by World Health Organisation (WHO). The contamination factors of
the analysed parameters in groundwater samples from locations 1 – 3 ranged between 0.02 and 0.36.
The modified degree of contamination of groundwater from locations 1 – 3 were 0.09, 0.11 and 0.15
respectively while that of locations 7, 9 and 12 were 17.46, 21.16 and 15.77 respectively. The water
quality index of groundwater from locations 1 – 3 were 0.19, 0.62 and 0.14 respectively while that of
locations 7, 9 and 12 were 7.08, 8.50 and 6.42 respectively. The pollution load indexes of
groundwater from all the locations considered varied between 0.07 and 0.80 except that from location
16 which was 1.05. The ANOVA showed that the mean concentrations of parameters investigated are
not different at 5 % significant level while the correlation coefficient matrix revealed the parameters
investigated were positively and negatively correlated. It was concluded based on the analysed
parameters that only groundwater from locations 1 – 3 were fit for drinking. It was also revealed that
using only WHO standard for drinking water to evaluate the status of groundwater can be misleading
but also contamination factor, modified degree of contamination and water quality index should also
be carried out

Author Biographies

L Salami

Environmental Engineering Unit, Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University,
Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria.

A.A Susu

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

W.A Gin

Department of Chemical Science, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

U Musa

Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technolgy, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.